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陈季冰的博客

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陈季冰,1967年12月生于上海,毕业于复旦大学新闻学院。曾任上海经济报副总编辑、东方早报副主编,现就职于上海商报社。著有从近现代历史出发探讨“中国崛起”问题的通俗学术著作《下一站:中国》。本博客内所有文章(除特别注明外)版权均为陈季冰所有,欢迎浏览,如欲转载,请事先与本人取得联系。 chjb@vip.sina.com

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小美人鱼雕像是什么样的“丹麦国宝”?  

2010-05-06 16:28:29|  分类: 文化评论 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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           小美人鱼雕像在哥本哈根Tivoli Gardens启运时,《纽约时报》照片

    在本届世博会的各国参展品中,来自丹麦的“小美人鱼”雕像大概是最受中国观众喜爱和关注的了。从丹麦政府最初作出决定将她从故乡千里迢迢地送到上海,到她在哥本哈根的装箱启运;从她抵达上海世博园,到揭开红头盖露出真容……这位安徒生笔下的“海的女儿”不知“谋杀”了多少报纸版面和电视时段!据说这是她百年来首次离开家乡。

    我注意到,几乎所有中国媒体在提到这尊“小美人鱼”雕像时,都会理所当然地加上一个形容她的前缀——“丹麦国宝”。这也使得趋之若骛般前来参观世博会丹麦馆的中国游客们在面对一汪碧水中的她时,表现得有些小心翼翼。

    差不多6年前的这个时候,我本人正好在丹麦哥本哈根,也曾专程跑到哥本哈根的港口海边去寻访“小美人鱼”的芳踪。我不知道“丹麦国宝”这种说法,究竟是丹麦人自己这么向中国记者介绍的,还是中国记者自己的生花妙笔?根据我的粗浅了解,说小美人鱼雕像是“丹麦国宝”,大致也不能说错,但恐怕这里所说的“国宝”,并不是大多数中国人寻常理解的那种意思。

    在国人的一般印象里,“国宝”,总是与重重严密的守卫、高科技的防腐蚀设备、大学者大教授云集的博物馆……这些东西联系在一起。换言之,假如某件物品被称为“国宝”,那必定是既包含了重大的历史文化价值,又是难以复制的极为稀缺的事物。说得更直白一点,虽然人们经常用“无价”来形容那些“国宝”,但它们实际上是一定具有金钱(或物质)价值的,只是其价值已经高到“难以估量”。比如说,我们会把王羲之的真迹视为国宝,也会把“神六”回收仓当成国宝,甚至也经常将钱学森这样的杰出科学家比喻为国宝。总而言之,它(他)们都是失去了就不会再有、就会对国家造成巨大“损失”之事物。

    若就这种意义上的“国宝”概念而言,“小美人鱼”雕像不仅难当什么“国宝”,几乎连一般的“宝贝”都算不上。她是一个啤酒商人出资,另一位名叫爱德华·艾里克森的丹麦雕塑家根据童话大师安徒生作品《海的女儿》中女主人公的形象用青铜浇铸而成的。尽管自1912年落成以来已有整整一个世纪,但在具有“北方巴黎”之称的富丽堂皇的丹麦首都,比她历史更悠久、形体更伟岸的城市雕塑比比皆是。况且,目前的这尊雕塑实际上早已不是最初的原件。仅据我个人了解到的情况,她至少曾经三次被偷盗、斩首和断臂过,最近一次就发生在1998年。据说,破坏者出于各种各样的原因,有些纯粹是因为实在太喜欢她了想据为己有!

    反正6年前我在哥本哈根的长堤公园一睹小美人鱼的芳容时,她正静静地坐在一边海边岩石上,毫无遮掩地承受着日复一日的日晒雨淋。游客若不怕掉到海里去,大可以爬到她坐的石头上与她合影留念。你甚至想要搂着她摆个POSE照张相,也不会有警察或保安前来呵斥,当然更不用担心被罚款……

    显然,比起同样参展本次上海世博会的法国奥赛博物馆的7件油画和雕塑,以及文艺复兴时期伟大艺术家米开朗基罗的两幅杰作《水果篮》和《捧果篮的男孩》,“小美人鱼”雕像这件“丹麦国宝”要是拿到索斯比和佳士得的拍卖展示台上,售价恐怕都不够前几件法国和意大利“国宝”的一个零头!

    然而,她又的的确确是全体丹麦人心中的珍宝,乃至就是丹麦这个国家的象征。只不过,真正的“丹麦国宝”,不是这座1.5米的青铜雕像,而是小美人鱼本身——那个安徒生笔下甘愿为了爱情而献身的美丽的“海的女儿”。丹麦人真正引以为豪并且倍加珍惜的,是诞生在他们这个北方小国里的举世闻名的伟大童话作家,以及他那些闪烁着崇高人性和人类理想的美丽童话。因此,所谓“丹麦国宝”,不是一件雕塑那样某种具体的物质化的存在,而是一笔珍藏在每一个丹麦国民心灵世界里的精神财富。这就好比你送某个外国友人一本《诗经》,并且告诉他这是中国“国宝”一样。这样的“国宝”,是永远不怕丢失、损坏和腐蚀的。

    在我看来,把小美人鱼雕像称为“丹麦国宝”,是一种非常具有启示意义的“误读”。今天,当越来越多的中国城市一面为了一个“历史名人出生地”争得不可开交,另一面却在大拆大建中将真正本地独有的传统文化弃之如敝帚的时候,认真地思索小美人鱼雕像呈现出来的何谓“国宝”的问题,将有助于中国人更好地再平衡我们自身失衡已久的有形的物质与无形的精神财富的关系。

写于2010429-30日,发表于201056日《成都商报》我的个人专栏。

 

附:

以下是美国《纽约时报》427日的一篇报道,介绍了小美人鱼雕像运往中国展示的前因后果。我特别欣赏文章中一个丹麦人说的这句话:“She is tiny, but her longing to go out to see the world is wonderful.(她很小,但她想去见识外面世界的渴望却很了不起。)

 

A Little Danish Mermaid Comes Up for Air in China

丹麦小美人鱼来中国透透气

By JOHN TAGLIABUE

 

Some call it mermaid diplomacy; others, tongue in cheek, speak darkly of illicit trafficking in young women.

The event in question was last month’s transport of Denmark’s best-known national emblem, the four-foot-tall bronze statue of Hans Christian Andersen’s Little Mermaid, from the rocky, quayside location it has occupied since 1913 to a site in Shanghai.

In Shanghai, the mermaid, perched on her rock in a pond of salt water direct from Copenhagen harbor, will be the centerpiece of the Danish pavilion in Shanghai’s 2010 World Expo, which opens this Saturday.

A crane hoisted the 385-pound statue — her perfectly formed body, her fishy tail — from its site and onto a truck. The exact route of her trip to Shanghai was kept secret, out of concern over possible attacks. Who would attack a mermaid?

Lots of people, apparently. The little mermaid has been decapitated twice, the last time in 1998; an arm has been broken off, though later recovered; she has been spattered with paint and dressed in Muslim garb, including a burqa. In 2003, she was blasted off her rock with explosives.

It’s a national disaster in women trafficking,” said Ase Lunkvist, with a laugh. A diminutive woman in her 50s, Ms. Lunkvist has hawked sugared almonds from April to September for six years from a stand in front of the mermaid’s now empty site. It was her first day out in 2010, so she could not predict what the impact on business would be.

It’s a kind of prostitution,” she added, waving at the empty rocks. “O.K., we make fun of it — but Copenhageners are sad, too.”

The idea to send the mermaid to China was hatched by Bjarke Ingels, 35, the Danish architect who won a competition to design Denmark’s pavilion at the fair. By placing her and her rock seat in clean seawater from Copenhagen harbor, he hoped to demonstrate the kind of advanced environmental technology that the Danes seek to sell the Chinese, whose environment badly needs help.

The project got off to a slow start when it was discovered that no one really knew just who owned the statue. The fairy tale mermaid, who was willing to give up her life in the sea to gain the love of a prince, is the work of Edvard Eriksen, who sculpted the face of a well known ballerina, but the body of his own wife, after the dancer refused to pose in the nude.

Since then, she has been a draw to millions who make the pilgrimage to a blustery, rocky shoreline to gaze in awe, and perhaps puzzled amusement, at her bronze figure, take photographs, and then move on.

There was a long discussion about who owns her,” said Soren Espersen, 56, a member of the conservative People’s Party and vice president of the Danish Parliament. The owner was found to be the city of Copenhagen, and the city council voted with a large majority to allow the statue to go, with opposition only from Mr. Espersen’s People’s Party.

A broad majority thought it was a wonderful opportunity for Danish business to be seen,” Mr. Espersen said. “But she is also a national treasure. If you were to send the Lincoln Memorial to China, there would be an uproar. Why do we want to do so much for Danish business?”

For Jorgen Delman the answer is simple. In recent years, said Mr. Delman, professor of China studies at Copenhagen University, China has emerged as the second most important trade partner for Denmark, after the United States, importing Danish telecommunications equipment and green energy technology while exporting to Denmark all sorts of manufactured goods. “Our ties are driven by trade and now investments, and it’s increasing,” said Mr. Delman, whose business cards are in English and Chinese.

At Copenhagen’s central tourism office, called “Wonderful Copenhagen,” perhaps with thanks to Danny Kaye’s rendering of the song “Wonderful, Wonderful Copenhagen,” from the movie musical “Hans Christian Andersen,” the senior director of business development, Peter Romer Hansen, called the decision to send the mermaid “a brilliant idea.”

What could we have sent?” he went on, in the kind of lyricism Danes fall into when discussing the mermaid. “Could it have been a Danish hot dog? A Lego block? The crown jewels?”

And finally, she is great in her smallness,” he said. “She is tiny, but her longing to go out to see the world is wonderful.”

To fill the seaside gap left by the mermaid’s departure, the Danes have invited Ai Weiwei, the artist and political activist based in Beijing, to produce a video installation on the site that will broadcast scenes from the Danish pavilion in far-off Shanghai. The artist has vexed the Chinese government with his own investigation of casualties among school pupils during the Sichuan earthquake in 2008, whose results he posted regularly on his blog until it was recently shut down by Beijing.

For the time being, the mermaid’s spot in the harbor is vacant. “For three weeks now it’s been empty,” said Ms. Lunkvist. No sign has been posted to indicate the statue’s whereabouts. “Tourists say to me, ‘Where’s the mermaid?”‘

A municipal inspector, Eva Gjolbo, rides her bike along the shore, checking the licenses of harborside merchants, like Ms. Lunkvist, who hawk souvenirs or snacks to visitors. But now Ms. Lunkvist is alone.

It’s a fun idea, certainly,” Ms. Gjolbo said. “As long as she gets back in one piece.”

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